What is Semiconductors, Definitions & Application

Authored By: Ankita Prajapati

Semiconductors are materials that have unique electrical properties. They are composed of a combination of both metals and nonmetals, and have much higher electrical conductivity than insulators, but much lower than metals. This is because semiconductors have a unique ability to control current flow. This makes them ideal for a wide range of electronic and electrical applications.

The most commonly used semiconductor is silicon. Silicon is a nonmetallic element that has four electrons in its outer shell that form covalent bonds with other atoms in the crystal lattice.

When a small amount of impurities are added, the conductivity of the material can be changed dramatically.

By adding different types of impurities, semiconductors can be made to be either more conductive (ntype) or less conductive (ptype).

The ability to control current flow makes semiconductors useful for a variety of electronic components and circuits.

Transistors, for example, are used to amplify or switch electrical signals. Diodes can be used to allow current to flow in one direction.

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Semiconductor lasers are used in optical communication systems. Solar cells are used to capture and convert sunlight into electrical energy.

Semiconductors are also the foundation of modern computing. Computer processors are made up of millions of transistors that are used to control the flow of information.

Digital memory is also based on semiconductor technology, as it uses transistors to store bits of information.

Semiconductors have revolutionized the electronic industry and continue to drive innovation in many areas.

From medical devices to smart phones and powerful computer processors, semiconductors are an essential technology that has enabled many of the devices we use every day.

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Applications

  1. Semiconductors have a wide range of applications in electronics and related fields.
  2. Semiconductors are used in various integrated circuits, transistors, diodes, and other components for processing data and storing information.
  3. They are also used in solar cells, LED lighting, and other energysaving applications.
  4. They are used in the fabrication of chips, microprocessors, and other components in computers and other electronic devices.
  5. Semiconductors are also used in medical imaging, automotive, and communication systems.

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